Appeals to motive are logical fallacies that don’t seek o prove anything: they seek to persuade through the use of emotions. Also,
Appeal To Novelty
Argumentum ad novitatem is when someone claims a proposition is correct because it’s “new”, “innovative” and “exciting.” New ideas should still be judged critically.
You can refute this argument easily by pointing out the fallacy of assuming that an idea is great just because it is new.
Appeal To Tradition
Similar to the Appeal to Novelty, an argumentum ad antiquitatem claims that an idea is right because it is tied to tradition or the old ways of thinking.
It is a fallacy because the “old ways” could just as easily have been wrong. Furthermore, something that was justified in the past may not be justified in the present.
Appeal to Motive
This phrase can also be used for an argument in which a person questions the motives of the person involved. It’s a type of ad hominem argument. For example: you only got the job because the boss was your Dad.
This argument is fallacious because it proves nothing but the possibility of bias- not bias itself.
Appeal to Force
The appeal to force is thuggery. It tries to get you on it’s side by threatening you. For example:
A: Why do I have to clean my room?
B: Because I said so!
The appeal to force may threaten physical harm , but in the soft and squishy world of politics and verbal debate, it is usually more like “agree with me, or you will lose your job”. In the days of Jim Crow, a burning cross or a noose was the primary means of argument for segregationists.
To refute the appeal to force, point out that the threat has nothing to do with whether or not the argument is false.
Argumentum ad Misercordiam
This is an appeal to pity. For example: this poor kid was raised by an uncaring foster parent in the inner city- he can’t be held responsible for his crimes!
Again, you can point out that your pity for the subject in question has nothing to do with the issue at hand.
Appeal To Consequences
In this fallacy, a person shows the consequences of believing a certain proposition. For example: evolution can’t be true because it means we came from monkeys!
You can refute this by showing that the truth is not whatever we want it to be.
Prejudicial language uses words and phrases that are loaded with emotion to make an argument. For example: I prefer freedom to socialism or I choose morality over gay marriage.
You can refute this argument by showing that the term in question doesn’t necessarily apply- that disagreeing with the speaker or writer doesn’t make them immoral or socialist (or both).
Appeal To Popularity
When someone insists that an idea is valid because of it’s popularity, then it is a logical fallacy.
You can refute it by showing that just because a lot of people believe something doesn’t make it true.
Appeals to motive are common varieties of “bad arguments” and are easy to spot.
Sources: Stephen’s Guide To The Logical Fallacies: http://onegoodmove.org/fallacy/welcome.htm